Existing studies have highlighted the importance of cyber security of ECPS against various forms of attacks from different aspects. Lempel–Ziv algorithm is a compression method based on the table search algorithm. Smart Grid utilises intelligent electricity transmission and distribution networks that use a two-way communication to increase the efficiency, reliability and safety of power delivery. Smart Grid Interoperability Framework, the Conceptual Model is updated with each Framework revision. Kamal Al Khuffash, in Application of Smart Grid Technologies, 2018. A smart grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to Many utilities get pressed on business cases and agree to too much risk in order to make the numbers work. Generally, wavelet transform can be divided into discrete wavelet transform, which is usually used for signal coding, and continuous wavelet transform, which is often employed to analyze signal. Traditional security mechanisms that are tailored to securing small-scale static data are inadequate for NoSQL systems. The opponents may have the opportunities to inject false information or modify the available information at different parts of the smart grid, for example, the real-time electricity pricing (RTP) information in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) that directly misleads the energy dispatch and energy consumption behaviors. Compatibility: The Smart Grid shall support the integration of renewable electricity such as solar and wind, has the capacity of distributed generation access and micro-grids, improve demand response functions, implement the effective two-way communication with consumers and satisfy various electricity demands of consumers; The Swedish and French demonstrators included Smart Functions and Grid Automation elements in order to achieve their microgrid and islanding targets, based on 100% RES supply in Sweden. These transformations are aiming to making the grid “smarter” and the resulting outcome is referred to as a “, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, When users are granted database privileges that exceed the requirements of their job function, privileges can be used to gain access to confidential information. A picture the Eos Aurora 1000|4000, a low-cost direct current battery system designed to meet requirements of grid scale energy storage. In addition, other types of cyberattacks, for example eavesdropping attacks, and malwares attacks, can also be applied to the communication system of smart grid, including smart meters, communication channels, and control center. High-privilege users such as DBAs will often have direct physical access to the database servers. Sparse coding is an artificial neural network method and is characteristic of spatial locality, directivity, and band-pass of the frequency domain, and is widely employed in image processing and semantic recognition as a data compression and feature extraction technology. Maybe you have heard of the Smart Grid on the news or from your energy provider. In reality, unlike the attacks directly imposed on physical components, the attacks on the cyber system can often cost much less and more concealment, that is, difficult to be detected timely and accurately. Smart-grid energy savings. Die Vernetzung erfolgt dabei durch den Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) sowie … Electricity is an important form of secondary energy. In addition, more attentions have been paid to both the power system itself and the characteristics of the communication infrastructure and their impact of degrading the underpinned functionalities. Digital technology allows for better demand-side energy management. (iii) In data querying, Hive and Impala can facilitate querying and manage big data residing in distributed storage. Smart grid of the future will be provided many more information such systems than now, especially in medium and low voltage grids. Wednesday 14 July: 10am – 4pm. Authorisation and fine-grained access control is another security risk. Advanced attacks that blend multiple tactics such as spear phishing emails and malware are used to penetrate organisations and steal-sensitive data. Imperva notes that only 19% of companies perform database monitoring. Smart grids improve sustainability and reduce carbon emissions by allowing greater penetration of renewable energy sources, particularly hitherto unreliable solar and wind. Fig. Hive express big data analysis tasks in MapReduce operations. Another Smart Grid function will be to manage vehicle-to-grid networks in which electrified fleets supply power to the grid as well as receive power from it. Privilege abuse is an insider threat. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A smart grid system is a self-sufficient electricity network system based on digital automation technology for monitoring, control, and analysis within the supply chain. One of the features of a smart grid is its "self-healing" capacity, that is, its ability to automatically work around power failures by detecting and isolating outages, then rerouting electricity to meet demand — an ability that would have minimized or prevented the 2003 blackout. Hence the system utilizes all the possible surface-available sites on the roadway, as well as on the vehicle and wind turbine surfaces, to implement both renewable energy sources present on a given roadway—solar power from the sun and wind power generated by the locomotion of EVs. A recent Imperva white paper [20] lists the following as the top five database security threats: (1) excessive, inappropriate and unused privileges, (2) privilege abuse, (3) insufficient web application security/SQL injection, (4) weak audit trails and (5) unsecured storage media. Smart Grid is a new electricity network, which highly integrates the advanced sensing and measurement technologies, information and communication technologies (ICTs), analytical and decision-making technologies, automatic control technologies with energy and power technologies and infrastructure of electricity grids. Customers’ benefits are conveyed in cost reduction and efficiency … As we have seen in Section 3.23.3.4, smart roads and solar roadways are progressively being developed in a very diverse manner, adding multiple pathways and applications for renewable energy sources, especially solar energy. It can be divided into long-term load forecasting, medium-term load forecasting, short-term load forecasting, and ultra-short-term load forecasting, corresponding to annual, monthly, single-day, and hourly load forecasting. In addition, solutions (e.g., Beg Mohammadi et al., 2016; Philip and Jain, 2015; Rather et al., 2015) are available to address the issue of optimal PMU placement with different objectives and deployment constraints. A paper (Bouffard & Kirschen, 2008) that was commissioned by the UK Government Office for Science has discussed the issues surrounding the concept. In Mousavian et al. Such microgrids require several system balancing services for successful islanding where frequency and voltage control are vital. Paired with smart battery systems, this can ensure a reliable electrical supply even from renewable sources. Figure 3.23.4.2. These are in addition to their key functions … The function of a (smart-grid) is enabling selection and orientation of renewable energy, energy from the grid and energy storage based on consumption. Demand side management can guide and encourage electricity consumers to take the initiative to change their electricity consumption patterns. Huge amounts of data continually harnessed by thousands of smart grid meters need to be sufficiently managed to increase the efficiency, reliability, and sustainability of the smart grid. This decentralised system uses wireless communication among smart agents (e.g., smart Wi-Fi sensors) installed in a vehicle to inform others about any unoccupied parking space [98]. A detection and identification of cyberattacks in PMU data based on the expectation-maximization algorithm was presented in Lee and Kundur (2014). Anomaly detection of electric power systems is done by power companies. Smart Grid . Utilizing four 250 kW submodules, the Aurora DC battery system yields 4 MWh of energy capacity, enabling 4 full hours of discharge capacity with a high response time and a relatively long battery lifetime of 5000 cycles and 15 years. The counteracting measures for cyberattacks on CPS should consider the interactions between the cyber and physical aspects of the systems. The compression methods can be divided into lossy and lossless methods based on the criterion of whether the compressed data can be restored to the original data. CPS may use different networking technologies (e.g., wired and wireless) and diverse protocols, which introduces additional challenges. Such a policy would provide individuals with “an annual carbon emissions ‘budget’ for their personal use” and would implement a “downstream carbon cap and trade policy instrument.” People would be responsible for the carbon emissions associated with household energy use, private transport, and aviation and would be able to buy additional emissions or sell their surplus credits in the personal carbon market. Recently, Marinakis et al. However, protection and coordination of numerous DERs are a very complex action, which are converted to the basic concern for the future smart distribution network designers [14]. To prevent this type of data breach, all database backup files should be encrypted. A Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD)-based method was proposed for FDI attack detection by tracking and calculating the distance between two probability distributions derived from measurement variations (Chaojun et al., 2015). A PV-system delivers solar energy for 20 years and more. If you would like to participate at Intelligent Building Europe, please contact a member of our team. In the past, power generation has been centralised in individual power stations, and traditional energy grids only allow power to flow in one direction. The benefits associated with the Smart Grid … We're bringing our brands together - Informa Market’s protection and management series has a new, unified look reflecting how we bring people together for a safer and more secure world. grid to a Smart Grid Grid optimization: Develop the perfect balance among reliability, availability, efficiency, and cost. Electric load forecasting provides the support generation planning and development planning of an electric power system. in Richtung Verkleinerung der Ablese-Intervalle, d. h. zu höherer Genauigkeit. Adapted from US Pat No. Smart grid is referred to by other names including “Smart Electric Grid,” “Smart Power Grid,” “Intelligrid,” and “Future Grid” [1]. Currently, power utilities tend to adopt the standard packet-switching-based protocols (e.g., TCP/IP-based protocols) and information models (e.g., IEC61850 in substations), which makes the communication system more vulnerable to the intentional attacks compared with the private-vendor protocols. The hierarchical architecture consists of components for such processes as data acquisition, data storing and processing, data querying, and data analytics. Other vehicles can communicate with the server to identify available/empty parking spaces and their locations. A self-healing smart grid would be indispensable in the event of a natural disaster, when access to light, heat and communication can be lifesaving. For example, attackers exploit vulnerabilities such as default accounts and passwords and database system configuration parameters to launch attacks. Linear regression-based dimension reduction uses dummy variables to estimate the effect of explanatory variables of different quantitative levels on the explained variables. From: Sustainable Cities and Society, 2015, D. Milborrow, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2016. Yarn is a general-purpose resource manager for Hadoop. Hohe Genauigkeit ermöglicht zwar eine bessere Grundlage für dynamischen Lastausgleich im Smart Grid, allerdings erfolgt dies auf Kosten des Datenschutzes. 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